On this day in 1955, hundreds of schoolchildren in the town of Stafford Springs lined up to be inoculated against polio, as part of a statewide effort to vaccinate young Connecticans against the deadly childhood disease.
Polio was the most feared childhood disease of the early 20th century. An untreatable virus which spread quickly and rarely exhibited any initial symptoms, polio could result in partial or total paralysis or even death. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt was confined to a wheelchair for most of his adult life due to a case of childhood polio; other partially-paralyzed victims were forced to remain in massive artificial respirators known as “iron lungs” in order to breathe.
After decades of attempts to find cures and vaccines for the polio virus for decades, one American researcher finally made a breakthrough. In 1952, Jonas Salk, a virologist at the University of Pittsburgh, created the first stable and effective polio vaccine. After a series of trials, the vaccine was declared both safe and effective at preventing polio in 1955, and the federal government, together with the March of Dimes, immediately launched a fully-funded national vaccination campaign.
Salk’s new vaccine, combined with this rigorous nationwide public health campaign, caused polio cases to plummet over the following decade, from 58,000 reported cases in 1952 to less than 200 in 1961. In 1979, the crippling childhood disease was officially declared eliminated in the United States – one of the most incredible American medical and scientific accomplishments of the 20th century.
“Polio,” March of Dimes website
Eliza Berman, “How the Polio Vaccine Trials Relieved a Worried Nation,” Time Magazine