September 1: Industrial Genius Elisha K. Root Dies in Hartford


The man at the root of Connecticut’s 19th century industrial greatness – Elisha King Root – died in Hartford on this day in 1865. Root’s machine tool genius revolutionized axe production in Collinsville and the Colt Firearms Company in Hartford an worldwide icon of precision manufacturing.

Born in western Massachusetts in 1808, Root became an apprentice at a local textile factory at age 10 and worked in various machine shops as a teenager.  In his early 20s, Root moved to Canton, Connecticut after accepting a job at the world-famous Collins axe factory.  There, he invented a unique die casting process and a series of precision machine tools that, once implemented, increased both the quality and speed of axes produced by the company.

Root’s mechanical prowess quickly earned him the reputation as one of the finest mechanical minds in New England, and when Samuel Colt opened his new firearms factory on the banks of the Connecticut River in Hartford in 1849, he immediately hired Root to serve as foreman and shop superintendent.  In the course of only a few years, Root completely revolutionized the way Colt firearms were made, transforming the entire manufacturing operation from a drawn-out process of putting together individually hand-made parts into a precise, streamlined, and cost-efficient assembly line.  The sheer volume and diversity of patents issued in Root’s name while he was employed at Colt reflect the scope of his engineering genius: metal-stamping drop hammers, milling machines, precision gauges, rifle-boring machines, and even improvements on several models of Colt revolvers.  The Colt Model 1855 Pocket Revolver was popularly known as the “Root Revolver” owing to the primary role Elisha K. Root had in its design.

After Samuel Colt died in 1862, Root became president of Colt Firearms, a position he held until his own death in 1865.  Under Root’s tenure as engineer and president, Colt’s factory became the first one in the world to mass-produce firearms using a modern assembly line method, and the first to produce a revolver made with 100% interchangeable parts.  One of the sharpest minds of the Industrial Revolution passed into the history books, today in Connecticut history.

Further Reading

Christopher Hoffman, “Profile of Elisha K. Root: Colt’s Manufacturing Mastermind,Hartford Courant

Eric Hintz, “Samuel Colt and… Sewing Machines?” National Museum of American History

Paul Uselding, “Elisha K. Root, Forging, and the ‘American System,'” Technology and Culture