May 14: Did This Man Ever Rest?


What didn’t he do? Today in 1752 was the birthday of Timothy Dwight IV – minister, scholar, theologian, war chaplain, songwriter, political leader, travel writer, college president, and one of a group of early American poets and writers known as the Hartford Wits. The eldest of 13 children born into an influential family in Massachusetts, Dwight graduated from Yale College in 1769 and shortly thereafter decided to dedicate his life to ministry and education. He was possibly inspired to make this choice by his grandfather, the famous Great Awakening Puritan minister Jonathan Edwards.

After graduation, Dwight taught at the Hopkins School in New Haven and as a tutor at Yale. He then accepted appointment as the minister of Greenfield Hill Congregational Church in Fairfield, Connecticut. While leading that congregation, he also founded a prestigious academy for young boys. During the Revolutionary War, Dwight served with distinction as a chaplain for Samuel Holden Parson’s 1st Connecticut Brigade and was later appointed an honorary member of the Society of the Cincinnati in Connecticut.

Timothy Dwight IV by John Trumbull, 1817

Unable to engage in combat by virtue of his ministerial position, Dwight inspired his men to fight by composing patriotic songs, the most notable of which was the song Columbia.

Dwight is best remembered for his leadership of Yale College, where he served as president from 1795 – 1817. Under his tenure, the college experienced rapid expansion and became the largest institution of higher education in the United States. While transforming the college, Dwight also was a prolific author, producing literature, poetry, songs, and a multi-volume account of his various journeys through New York and New England. His 11-volume work The Conquest of Canaan is considered the first epic poem produced in America. Dwight was a member of the “Hartford Wits,” a group of young scholars including David Humprheys and John Trumbull (the poet, not the painter), who wrote a body of satirical verse during the 1770s and 1780s highlighting American virtues and touting Connecticut’s political system as a model of stability and order for the new nation.

In the early 19th century, Dwight rose to prominence as the head of Connecticut’s Federalist party, where, as a leading Congregationalist minister, he vociferously, albeit unsuccessfully, opposed the disestablishment of church and state that was eventually codified in Connecticut’s Constitution of 1818.

During his lifetime, Dwight gained extraordinary recognition for his work as a scholar and educator. He received honorary degrees from both the College of New Jersey (present-day Princeton) and Harvard. After death ended his labors in 1817, he was interred in New Haven’s Grove Street Cemetery. In the early 20th century, Yale named one of its newest residential colleges “Timothy Dwight College” in honor of Dwight and his grandson, Timothy Dwight V, who also served as President of Yale. This was a fitting tribute to one of Yale’s greatest students, tutors, and presidents, and one of early America’s busiest and most talented writers, thinkers, and leaders, born today in 1752.

Further Reading

Andy Piascik, “Timothy Dwight Provides Religious, Military, and Educational Services for a Young Country,”

Timothy Dwight,” entry run History of American Landscape Design, National Gallery of Art

Hymns of Timothy Dwight,